Karen Goodman

Karen Goodman, USA

Karen Goodman, USA


  • BA in English, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA (scholarship)
  • MS in Special Education, City University of New York-Hunter College, New York, New York, USA (scholarship)
  • Graduate music therapy equivalency certificate program, Montclair State College. Montclair, New Jersey. USA
  • Post-graduate studies in neurology, developmental psychology, sociology, music, music research, New York University, New York, New York, USA
  • Clinical affiliations and/or supervision with Dr Cynthia Pfeffer, New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, White Plains, New York; Dr Shale Brownstein, MD, Harlem Hospital, New York, New York; Dr Judith Kestenberg, MD (1910-1999), NYU Medical Ctr, New York, New York; Dr Silvano Arieti, MD (1914-1981), New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York; Dr Stanley Greenspan, MD (1941-2010), George Washington University Medical School, Washington, DC.
  • Workshops with Dr. Daniel Stern, MD (1934-2012), New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
  • Author and Editor, Goodman, K.D., 2007,2011,2015, Charles C Thomas Publisher; see Research Gate for further information
  • Clinician in assessment and intervention for child and adult psychiatry, autism, developmental disabilities (1976-2019)
  • Licensed Creative Arts Therapist- State of New York.
  • Professor, Music Therapy, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, USA., 1978-2018


  • Professor Emerita, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, USA. 2018-present
  • Karen D Goodman Consulting Services, LLC: international editing, writing support, clinical supervision, educational mentoring, guest lecturing, continuing education provider, career guidance. Email: goodmank@montclair.edu



The Music Therapy Supervisor: Developmental Perspectives
A Qualitative Study Including Systematic-Interpretive Reviews and Interview Study Utilizing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis


Associate Professor Emeritus, Inge Nygaard Pedersen, PhD., Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Professor Avi Gilboa, PhD, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.


Despite the pioneering efforts of the late 1980s in the UK (Streeter, 2015)  to require professional clinical supervision for music therapists, there is limited information encouraging the actual use of and standards for clinical music therapy supervision, particularly regarding supervision of professional music therapists ( Kennelly, 2013) which is, for example, at a level of 39% in the United States (MacRae,2021). Providing different training models and/or perspectives for supervisors may encourage the growth of training and the subsequent use of supervision by clinicians. One model or series of perspectives that can be introduced is that of developmental stages for the supervisee (Goodman, 2016).

This topic has received attention at the preprofessional level in music therapy whereas, for example, in counselling, the Integrated Developmental Model, IDM (Stoltenberg, Neill, & Delworth,1998) is a good example which impacts the supervisor/supervisee awareness and strategies at both preprofessional (Pedersen, Holck, Ridder, in press) and professional levels (Pedersen, 2015).

Watkins defines the words ‘developmental stage’ as a” defined period in one’s growth in which particular issues emerge for the individual to confront (Watkins, 1993, p. 60).” Although the concept of a developmental path for the supervisee is supported by literature in the social sciences (i.e. psychology, social work, counseling), it is less attended to in music therapy (Goodman, 2011), particularly with professionals, hence the need for further and specific inquiry.

As a qualitative study favouring an exploratory and inductive approach, this monograph will initially aim to identify how clinical supervision literature in music therapy and counselling has or has not introduced awareness about the developmental levels of the the supervisee, thereby impacting clinical supervision strategies and developmental processes for the supervisor. Following systematic and interpretive literature reviews and thematic analysis in both music therapy and in counselling which address the research questions below, a phenomenological study, achieved through a series of open-ended interviews within the context of themes realized in the literature, will provide first-hand information from music therapy supervisors. Discussion and suggestions for further research will follow. This may also be considered as an effort to triangulate various data sources, wherein multiple sources of themes and perspectives serve as a process to add strength to the study (Creswell, 2014).


  1. Does the music therapy literature inform us regarding:
    1. developmental stages of the supervisee which impact the supervisor’s progressive awareness;
    2. changes in clinical supervision (i.e., musical and verbal) as a result of the supervisor’s progressive awareness;
    3. developmental processes experienced by the supervisor? If yes, in what way?
  2. Does the social science literature (i.e., counseling, psychology) on clinical supervision inform the music therapy literature regarding:
    1. developmental stages of the supervisee which impact the supervisor’s progressive awareness;
    2. changes in clinical supervision as a result of the supervisor’s progressive awareness;
    3. developmental processes experienced by the supervisor? If yes, in what way?
  3. Do music therapy supervisors experience a developmental awareness and/or process during work with supervisees?  If so - what is it?


Literature Searches: Using relevant search terms, use a variety of curated academic databases to locate periodical sources, relevant chapters, books, and dissertations for review. Use inclusion criteria related to research questions above. Organize results into thematic categories. Provide tables and visuals as necessary for thematic analysis.

Interview study: Conduct Interviews with a variety of supervisors in terms of their background, country of origin and experience which supports the principles of purposive sampling. Entry criteria includes a minimum of ten years of supervision with professional music therapists with a minimum duration of 6 months. Ask supervisors to participate in one 1.5-hour interview by zoom with a possible half hour follow up. Each interviewee is given the option to review the initial questions beforehand. Data will be collected using one 1.5-hour semi-structured interview (Smith, Flower & Larkin, 2009), an approach utilized by music therapists (e.g., Aronoff & Gilboa, 2014; Solli & Rolsvjord, 2015) which allows the interviewer to establish rapport with the interviewee, explore areas of interest that arise and expand on interests and concerns as they spontaneously arise in the interview. The verbatim interview scripts (transcribed through Zoom) will be analyzed qualitatively, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) framework (IPA; Smith & Osborn, 2003), where the researcher refers not only to the explicit description of participants' experience of the phenomena (the phenomenological part of the analysis) but also the possible implicit interpretations of what the participant is saying (the interpretative part of the analysis). Reliability will be realized through feedback from the interviewees on their transcripts (ITR) and the interpretation of the transcripts.


Aronoff, U. & Gilboa, A. (2014) Music and the closet: The roles music plays for gay men in the ‘coming out’ process. Psychology of Music. 1-15.

Creswell, J.W. (2014) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). Sage Publishers

Goodman, K.D. (2011) Music Therapy Education and Training: From Theory to Practice. C.C. Thomas, Ltd.

Kennelly, J. (2013). Sights, sounds and feelings: The views, experiences, and practices regarding professional supervision for Australian-based music therapists. Doctoral Dissertation, School of Music, University of Queensland. Retrieved from          https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:319389

MacRae, A. (2021) The attitudes, perceptions, and values of professional supervision among music therapists: A descriptive study, unpublished.

Pedersen, I.N. (2009) Music therapy supervision with students and professionals: the use of music and analysis of counter transference experiences in the triadic field. In H. Odell- Miller, & E. Richards (Eds) Supervision of Music Therapy: A theoretical and practical handbook (pp.73-107). London: Routledge

Pedersen, I.N., Holck, U., Ridder, H.  Clinical supervision for internship students, in press.

Smith, J.A, Flower, P. & Larkin, M. (2009) Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. London: Sage.

Solli, H. P. & Rolvsjord, R. (2015) The Opposite of Treatment: A qualitative study of how patients diagnosed with psychosis experience music therapy, Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 24:1, 67-92, DOI:10.1080/08098131.2014.890639

Stoltenberg, C.D., McNeill, B. & Delworth, U. (1998) IDM supervision: An integrated developmental model of supervising counselors and therapists. Jossey-Bass.

Streeter, E. (2015) Post-Training Clinical Supervision: The Journey Continues. In K.D. Goodman (Ed.) International Perspectives in Music Therapy Education and Training: Adapting to a changing world (pp.301-321). C.C. Thomas, Ltd.

Watkins, C.E. Jr. (1993) Development of the psychotherapy supervisor: Concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses of the supervisor complexity model. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 47,58-74